GPU Mining - Where GPU Miners Discover the Best GPU Mining Hardware
gpuminer is a Reddit community dedicated to GPU mining of digital currencies also known as alt coins. Discover the current best mining hardware, mining software and hash rate settings to get the most out of your GPU mining rigs. We cover Ethereum mining as well as other crypto currencies including: Dash, Monero, Decred, Zcash, and Library Coin.
Ok, A little backround. I know hardware and networking. I can build just about any config of a computer. I understand overclocking and undervolting. I can invest around 2,700 for initial investment. So do I buy hardware to build a GPU miner with at least 6 cards or more? Probably RX580 as they are cheap and I have one in my rig. More on that later. Or do I a Asic miner like this I understand a GPU miner is multiple coins and not Bitcoin, and Asic is nothing but Bitcoin. I've done the math on the Asic miner and the ROI in about 3 months with a net gain of about ~10,000 USD a year @ .13 cents per Watt. I've had a hard time finding a solid or semi way of calculating the earnings for a GPU miner. Not only because it is many coins or dedicated to one coin, but there our other variables involved. However I have more control of the hardware if it fails. I dipped my toe into mining with my own rig that has a RX580 fatboy and a AMD Phenom ii x4 955 black edition. I overclocked the GPU and undervolted the CPU to reduce heat since it was hitting 62 cel. The GPU gets 12.5 sol/s and the CPU was getting ~322 h/s. All this added up to ~170 watts and a net of .00218322 BTC/Month. This was all done using Cudo as it was easy to find and setup just to test. This was just a test to see how it would work. I wouldn't use Cudo to full scale as it is a pool and the transfer to a Wallet is pretty steep in relationship to earns. I understand that in a pool you get your share based upon how much of the "work" you did to get find block. So do I build or buy? With that much computation power do I need to join a pool? What software is best for pool or alone? I am comfortable with CLI as long as it's well documented, but would like a remote GUI. Also what is the best wallet with the best fees for transactions. Currently using uphold since I use Brave. I think I covered as much as I could, if you have any questions let me know. Any advice would be great. If I should post this else where let me know please or I could just cross post it. TIA. Be safe, stay safe! Edit: Words and BTC earning was WAY off then I first typed this.
Do people profit by mining anymore? If not why do people mine if it is no profit? If mining is profitable then how? I am looking at cost of different asic hardware. Even at bulk prices and with free electricity the online mining reward calculators still show a loss by never recovering the price of hardware. Or in a good situation just a cut even. Is mining on bitcoin now only reserved to the few elitist who manufacture asic machines? The claims that it is profitable because bitcoin value go up is invalid. Because at that case better off to just buy bitcoin and hodl instead of buying asic with it. Or if bought the hardware using bitcoin may never recover costs. How is lack of asic resistance not an issue?
Canadian exchanges have seen massive progress - in at least a couple of exchanges.
We’ve seen the collapse of Einstein which took millions of dollars more from Canadians. And we saw the OSC crackdown on the inflated trading volume on CoinSquare.
Blockchain provides the full ability for exchanges to prove asset backing, yet we continue to have to guess which platforms are backed. In an effort to help Canadians find the exchanges which are most transparent, we divide platforms into 5 categories:
Dead Platform/Incidents - For fun, and to help illustrate the risks, reviews of past platforms that collapsed or lost funds in Canada. No disrespect to the real losses of Canadians who worked hard for their money.
No Verification Found - A platform that doesn’t appear to give any indication of any auditing or internal controls. You may want to avoid these platforms, but sometimes these are just because this information is not available easily.
Apparent Verification - I was able to dig and locate some sort of claim or indication that they were being audited. Of course, most of these don’t mention who specifically is performing the audit, what is actually being checked, and/or anything about the verification process. In one case, this verification is severely out of date.
Full Backing Report - In order to meet these criteria, the platform has to have undergone a process where full backing of customer assets was verified by a third party within the past year. A report needs to be published including the verification process and that the third party has verified full backing (or what level of backing). While these are pretty compelling, it doesn’t stop a dishonest platform from excluding customers, tricking the audit process, or colluding with the third party in various ways.
Proof of Reserve - This is a cryptographic process that includes public wallet addresses, signing of transactions, and a public hash list or Merkle tree to allow customers to validate inclusion. Together, these three criteria demonstrate that funds exist on the blockchain, are spendable by the exchange, and fully back crypto assets of all customers who check. Combined with a financial audit, it’s the best we can get. While many misuse the term, no Canadian exchange has ever fully proven reserves.
If Proof of Reserve or another form of verification was standard on all exchanges, people like Gerald Cotten and Dave Smilie wouldn’t have been able to pull off massive fraud, and cases such as Einstein would have been known long before it resulted in insolvency. Supporting exchanges that don’t provide public validation or transparency is supporting fraud. Even if the platform is 100% honest, they are setting a dangerous standard that enables other fraudsters to hide in plain sight.
FlexCoin - As “the world's first bitcoin bank” that’s “not a true bank”, FlexCoin provides “a central location for all of your bitcoins”. “Bitcoins deposited with flexcoin will be stored on [thei]r secure servers” so you can “send bitcoins to non-technical individual[s] via e-mail”. Unlike blockchain, “flexcoin to flexcoin transfers are free”. MapleChange - “[S]wift, reliable and to-the-point!” “One of [their] primary concerns is security for [their] customers'' which is why “keys are cryptographically encrypted”. More Canadian than anyone! Excuse me while we hold the door open to our crypto! "[W]ithdraws(sic) are next to instantaneous", "rel[ying] solely on the aspect of swiftness"! Canadian Bitcoins - Funds stored for convenience in a professional Rogers data center, which has the highest level of courtesy and customer service - always going above and beyond to provide expedient service whenever a request comes in! CoinTradeNewNote - A “meticulously engineered Bitcoin Exchange” “focused on security and tak[ing] these risks seriously”. “[Y]ou don’t have to worry”, they have “90+% cold storage” and their “cold storage is fully insured by Xapo”. Plus, as “a registered Canadian corporation” they “leverage the good guys to fight the bad guys”. Einstein - You can get “your money deposited and withdrawn faster than any other exchange”. As one customer said "With so many hacks and exit scams, it gives me confidence knowing Einstein is backed by hard-working people just like me." Just check the user experience on their subreddit from their "220,000+ satisfied customers". EZ-BTC - As the world’s “most user-friendly and bespoke crypto currency management platform”, they have “strong security”. “All your coins are kept in cold storage. They’re safe.”. The presence of physical ATMs was one of the strategies to build customer confidence for their promised 9% annual return on stored funds. QuadrigaCX - Operating since 2013, with “vast cryptocurrency reserves” right up to the end. "Bitcoins that are funded in QuadrigaCX are stored in cold storage, using some of the most secure cryptographic procedures possible." Even today some of the funds remain 100% secure in their cold storage! If there are any others I missed, let me know!
No Verification Found
BitVo - Whether “Canada's premier cryptocurrency exchange” or merely “on a mission to become Canada’s premier cryptocurrency exchange”, we have to praise BitVo’s security for including “multiple signatures of a select group of trusted individuals” which are “not connected to the exchange platform or a network”. It is unfortunate that such common sense concepts are “proprietary” instead of the standard on all Canadian platforms. While assuring that they operate “on a full-reserve basis” and talking about “transparency”, the proof is lacking and nothing indicates it to have been verified externally or even internally. The withdrawal-based fee structure incentivizes users to keep funds “safe and secure” on the platform - which is “owned and operated by banking and security experts”. The “banking” side shows for sure in these hidden fine-print fees, which go well with transparency. CoinField - Apparently no longer the "most secure trading platform in Canada" but now instead the “Best Bitcoin & Cryptocurrency Exchange In Canada” - based in Estonia and no longer having a Canadian office. They’re “fully regulated” in 193+ countries, except for the period between October 2019 and June 2020, when they weren’t even registered as an MSB. They offer a huge range of trading pairs except for the ones you need, with high liquidity except for the pairs that don’t have any, and you can withdraw and trade all of your funds as long as you leave a small amount behind at every stage. CoinSmart - Not sure what "[i]ndustry leading cold storage" is, but luckily it’s “bank level”. No mention of multi-sig. They’re so "accountable to [their] clients, community and to each other" and "committed to being open and honest" that they don’t include any audit. Deposits are easy and withdrawals are fun - like a video game. Advance through each stage to prove your willpower, complete with warnings, SMS verification that doesn’t display errors (but luckily you can change the number to anything at all without further verification), and even an elaborate high-resolution selfie requirement you have to email in. If you can’t complete or don’t feel comfortable sending info via email, your money is held hostage - no big deal at all really. Coinut - As "the most secure cryptocurrency exchange", they provide “a comprehensive cryptocurrency exchange platform for trading cryptocurrencies”. (Not to be confused with a cryptocurrency exchange platform for trading coconuts.) They’ve been “running securely for about three years” “by storing cryptocurrencies offline” in a single “offline computer”. In addition to not using multi-sig and "not us[ing] USB drives, as the online computer may be infected with virus", they also don’t appear to use audits or any form of public verification. NDAX - “Canada’s most secure trading platform” to "set the standard for the Canadian cryptocurrency industry". While NDax promotes “segregated accounts” and “95-98% of user funds in an offline, multi-signature wallet”, there’s nothing to indicate backing of assets on the platform. While apparently partnered with a Canadian bank, the bank is not revealed. No audit found but at least there’s a full-page risk disclosure and disclaimer. You can sleep peacefully knowing that they’re legally protected, even “for losses suffer(sic) to you as a result of any defaults of by(sic) insolvency of other Users.” What does that even mean? Apparently, even with their industry-record withdrawal fees, they couldn’t afford a legal team with proper grammar. Newton - Newton was one of the first to announce third party custody. You should give your funds to Newton, because they’ll give them to Balance, and they’ll do this for free! And “[m]ultinational companies trust” Balance. According to the Balance terms, “the digital assets you purchase via the Platform are not protected by any government or other insurance”. "Prospective clients...will hold the entire liability associated with purchasing a Digital Asset Cache™️ and using [Balance] services, potentially including partial or total loss of capital." "Balance does not represent or guarantee that the Balance Platform will be free from loss, corruption, attack, viruses, interference, hacking, or other security intrusion, and Balance disclaims any liability relating thereto." "No data transmission over the Internet can be guaranteed to be 100% secure, and as a result [they] cannot ensure or warrant the security of any information you transmit to [them]." "You are solely responsible for maintaining the confidentiality and security of your Account." If someone else should “[w]ithdraw the digital assets in your DAC to [thei]r external digital wallets as soon as within the same business day.” "Balance shall not be responsible for any losses arising out of the unauthorized or other improper use of your Account." The security of Balance custodianship comes down to (a) proprietary “HSMs” tested by their team of experts are more secure than hardware wallets tested by thousands of teams of experts around the globe, (b) a standardized and documented system of physical security in facilities accessible to a select number of people is superior to a combination of unique physical security, exclusive signing procedure, and complete locational secrecy that could be employed separately by multiple reasonably competent individuals, and (c) placing your trust in the team of Newton, the team of Balance, and the security of a website is more secure than simply trusting a single team to manage the private keys in an offline multi-sig fashion. While Balance has an extensive page on security and internal controls, I was unable to locate any audit nor verification that the assets on Newton or custodian Balance are actually fully backed against deposits. From the demo page, we can see that Newton has visibility to see their balances on Balance, so at least Dustin and the team can check diligently and make sure they aren’t taken. Why not give some of that visibility to your customers? Why has Newton, which has been a leader in so many other areas (“commission-free”, working to get the best rates, etc…) not been a leader in putting together any level of public visibility to the backing of customer funds on their platform?
CoinBerry - CoinBerry uses the best practice of offline multi-sig for the storage of all customer funds, a set-up that, to date, has a breach-less record historically. Assuming the private keys are properly managed by separate trained people, CoinBerry client funds are thus stored in what’s essentially a giant cold storage wallet, with all withdrawals handled and verified by multiple people before being approved. However, this model is still subject to the platform being tricked into releasing funds as may have happened in August 2020. What they haven't done is transparently admitted and explained how the breach occurred, which can be an opportunity to highlight security improvements and help other platforms avoid similar issues. Instead, they've recently purchased insurance to cover future incidents. It's hard to judge from a few excerpts of what’s likely a multi-page (or even a multi-chapter) policy, but it would be the first time that insurance has ever paid out in the history of cryptocurrency. A multi-platform insurance strategy could be cheaper, more comprehensive, and more likely to pay out than third party insurance. CoinBerry is “trusted by Canadian Municipalities”, a deal that enabled “the first payment of property taxes with Bitcoin in Canadian History”. They reportedly also “undergo annual 3rd party financial statement audits”. From records, these appear to be conducted by the firm MNP which is an accounting firm. CoinBerry has not, however, publicly declared themselves to be “fully-backed”, nor have they published any verification on the backing level of funds on the platform. Rather the audits are “secret”. This is concerning given the large referral bonuses paid out by the platform to new customers (including a popular $25 referral bonus for purchasing $50 of bitcoin), multiple issues with withdrawal delays, including one affecting hundreds of customers earlier this year, and the slow increase to their “fair pricing and industry-leading low fees.” Fees have gone from 0.5% to 1%, to a tiny sentence about “adding a margin, or spread, of between 0% and 2% to the rate offered by [thei]r liquidity sources”. Luckily, they “don’t hide fees across your trading experience.” In case you should sign up and find that (up to 2%) rate to be too high, “[a]ccounts requesting a withdrawal of Fiat or Crypto currency in original form, without conducting a trade will be...charged an account maintenance fee calculated as the larger of $25 or 5% of the total amount requested.” You will also need to pay additional “mining fees for crypto withdrawals”, which significantly exceed typical transaction costs and are only mentioned in the fine print of their fees page. CoinBerry has publicly expressed agreement that you should not store funds on cryptocurrency exchanges including their own. Neither their insurance nor world-class security will do anything whatsoever if their platform goes insolvent. CoinSquare - CoinSquare has had a rough year, most notably with being publicly declared as having inflated trading volume and having to pay multi-million dollar fines. As usual, the Reddit community was already on top of this and apparently, some staff at the company were even open about it. Ironically, one could argue that their dishonest practice did more to stand up to Quadriga than regulators ever did, may have saved thousands of Canadians from losing their funds, and may even have been a key factor in bringing Quadriga down. It remains to be seen what will become of the shell of one of Canada's oldest exchanges. It would be the ultimate in poetic irony if the actions of the OSC to protect CoinSquare investors ultimately destroyed the full value of their investment. If that plays out, I'm sure they will heap praise on the OSC for so publicly and fragrantly shaming CoinSquare for a practice which was similarly employed on other exchanges globally and which they'd already voluntarily ceased months prior to the conclusion of the 6-figure investigation and 7-figure fines. That said, CoinSquare already had a lack of visibility into their security practices, which they describe as “100% proprietary”. This would imply the team at CoinSquare is smarter than established security standards by experts all around the world at protecting your funds, contradicting previously reported incidents. They describe “SSL and 2FA”, which are more or less standard features of all exchanges. A “95% cold storage” policy is low compared to many other platforms, and it doesn’t appear to be mentioned whether multi-sig is being employed or not. And of course, their apparent regular audits are not public (allegedly by “a national accounting firm whose identity is protected under an NDA"). They’ve routinely described themselves as solvent rather than fully backed. Kraken - A kraken is “an enormous mythical sea monster”, and likewise Kraken, the exchange, is enormous, the largest and oldest exchange platform in North America. Kraken recently achieved the momentous accomplishment of becoming the first cryptocurrency exchange to be a regulated bank by completing a charter in the state of Wyoming. Kraken calls itself the “most trusted cryptocurrency exchange” and apparently “provides world class financial stability by maintaining full reserves, healthy banking relationships and the highest standards of legal compliance”. While many individual Kraken customers have been hacked, the platform overall never has, which is an impressive record. Similarities abound further. According to legend, kraken exist off the coast of Norway. According to alleged court papers, Kraken operated illegally in the state of New York. Should you encounter a kraken, you may be best to leave silently. If you should work at the counter for Kraken, you may be legally silenced. One of the former employees for Kraken alleges wrongful dismissal and that the bank accounts of Kraken are actually running millions of dollars short of where they should have been. But don't worry - Kraken’s website features a Proof of Reserve page, stating that “[o]ver the past several weeks, Kraken has successfully developed and completed an industry-leading, independent, cryptographically-verified audit.” But the page was written in 2014 and among the long list of limitations, the process does not enable any validation on the blockchain. Kraken hasn't done any validation or publishing of reserves in 6 years and counting. NetCoins - Once upon a time, the cofounder of CoinTrader (sound familiar?) decided to found a new exchange - “Canada’s easiest, most trusted way to buy and sell crypto”. As they say on the FAQ, “[t]rading cryptocurrency is completely safe”. Having your own wallet is “entirely up to you! You can certainly keep cryptocurrency, or fiat, or both, on the app.” “Get verified in minutes!” While comforting to know that parent corporation BIGG Digital Assets is audited by Manning Elliott LLP and they have “[r]eal human beings you can get in touch with easily”, this doesn't make up for no visibility whatsoever into how funds are stored or what portions are backed.
Full Backing Report
There are only two exchanges in Canada meeting these criteria. BitBuy - BitBuy has operated since 2016, and was the very first to get a “Proof of Reserve and Security Audit Report” from third party CipherBlade. Since that time, they’ve also established themselves as the first company to get two separate third party validations, with the second one from Blockchain Intelligence Group. The platform’s initial operation as a non-custodial “Express Trade” model lends additional credibility. Therefore, with now two independent third party reports, BitBuy maintains the title as the most transparent exchange in Canada. However, “Bitbuy has moved its existing bitcoin holdings over to Knox”. You now have to trust both teams and platforms for the security of your funds. This is described by them as an “industry leading push for best practices”. Insurance is of course “subject to the full policy terms, conditions and exclusions”. And “Bitbuy will be Knox’s first platform partner”. Knox has never done this before for any other platform. Their security model is “a mouthful for most”, but let’s break down their pitch. They have “air-gapped specialized hardware”. So is a standard typical hardware wallet. It’s running “custom policy logic”, which could be a good or a bad thing depending on the logic. Their logic has probably been vetted by a single team of experts, which is a standard shy of most hardware wallet protocols vetted by thousands of experts globally. They use a “dual-control operational model”, which if you look up dual-control, it actually refers to the fact that the functionality of the module is simultaneously performing actions and being monitored”. It allows one to “experiment with the system so as to learn about its behavior and control it better in the future” which you can decide for yourself if that’s a good thing to have or not in the hardware that controls withdrawals of an active exchange platform. There is “offline transaction processing”, which again is a standard feature of a hardware wallet. “Geographically distinct facilities” is a good idea, though easily achieved by not storing all the private keys in the same place. Saying that the facilities “communicate in a closed network” is an interesting concept. How can you know that a network is closed? If the facilities are close together, they can be breached together. If far apart, someone can get in the middle. The network is no longer closed the moment any part of it is breached. I can go on and on and break down every one of their systems if I have to, but instead, I’ll quote their own security advice about “minimizing the attack surface of the entire key lifecycle”. The minimum attack surface for a private key is having an individual generate it secretly and securely using a process which is vetted by hundreds of security experts around the world, and not relying on a third party to have to control anything to do with that key. This is already available from most standard hardware wallets, with experts debating whether other advanced experts can find a way to extract the key with access to extremely sophisticated equipment and physical access to the hardware. The best and most efficient way to mitigate a weak or corruptible party is through multi-sig where all parties have to sign the transaction. Adding intermediary custodians instead means funds are lost when any one of them is breached, and when using the same in-house hardware as Knox does, any vulnerability on that hardware or supply chain can compromise multiple wallets at once. Now, insurance. The policy isn’t public on its website. It gives high-level features only. What’s astounding is that “collusion” is considered a break-through, which says a lot about the state of third party insurance in the space. I requested an example policy from their team. Their response was that it was “proprietary” and that they only “go over it with serious buyers”. In other words, no one has visibility to the actual policy details of what’s really covered outside of BitBuy or Knox, and neither party has any incentive to present that information objectively. For now, until someone cares to prove me wrong, I’ll quote their own website, “[m]ost policies covering Bitcoin theft and loss fall short and provide a false sense of security”. One of the issues with the BitBuy validation is that it offers no visibility whatsoever for customers to know if their balances were included in any of their third-party validations. As such, BitBuy could have excluded any number of customers and passed both verifications with flying colours. That's why it isn’t a full Proof of Reserve. Also, they stopped talking to me again. But I still believe that BitBuy is one of the least worst platforms, now with reserves verified by two separate third parties. ShakePay - Firstly, congratulations. The formerly trustless raccoon has now got a third party validation - a key step forward. The ShakePay platform is incredibly good at marketing, with the most powerful “Shaking Sats” program to literally get thousands of Canadians to think about buying more cryptocurrency every single day, or at least to pay homage to their great raccoon mascot. More recently, ShakePay completed a security assessment provided by CipherTrace, and added further insurance. CipherTrace found that reserves appeared to be fully backed including extensive analysis of the transactions and provided data. ShakePay could be upfront that they charge a market spread or list the buy and sell prices. Instead, they promote the service as “no fees” and list only one price for bitcoin or ethereum, the only coins they sell. To find the model you have to click through to a separate page. The spread and pricing information is only ever available from within a registered account. ShakePay does not offer any additional trading functionality or coins. ShakePay states that the “majority of all digital currencies are stored securely offline”. The CipherBlade report found this ratio was at “93% of Bitcoin and 91% of Ethereum” in cold storage at the time of the report, though it “var[ies] periodically to some degree throughout the day”. The report refers to a “multi-signature wallet interface”, which they later call a “service to access its sending and receiving multi-signature wallets”, which apparently also “does not have control over cryptocurrency in the hot wallets”. This part doesn’t exactly make sense, as one would most likely consider “access” to a “sending” function as “control”. Apparently, this “not mentioned” service is “without any known security risks” and there are also “redundancy measures” in place as well. Whatever that means in the context of irreversible transactions is a mystery. However, the majority of funds are no longer stored with ShakePay but have now been given to an undisclosed “trust company registered under the NYDFS”. The “variety of security protocols” in place here include “address whitelisting”, the only policy they are willing to disclose publicly “for security reasons”. While ShakePay won’t identify the third party, “CipherBlade can confidently conclude that Shakepay controls these cold wallets” even though “they are controlled by [the] cold storage provider” and “the cold storage provider ultimately holds the private keys”. ShakePay does receive “an account statement” “which includes applicable wallet addresses and balances held” and “[d]ata found on the blockchain was also in line with information found on these statements.” It will be interesting to see in one of many “quite unlikely” events what “the cold storage provider’s policy and Shakepay’s own policy” would cover, given that the details of both policies are completely secret. Luckily, “[t]he vast majority of Shakepay customers who purchase cryptocurrency on the Shakepay platform withdraw it promptly thereafter.” It’s important to note that this report is not a Proof nor an Audit (as originally named). “The reviewer is not a professional accountant, and CipherBlade has not performed a professional financial audit or an audit of internal controls and expresses no assurance on the accounting records of Shakepay.” ShakePay was happy to remove “audit” but they still continue to insist on calling this a “proof”, when it’s not. They claim “Proof of Reserves can have a variety of setups” and they cited Nic Carter’s blog post, which also listed all the criteria for the proof, which they did not meet. In discussion with Nic (who is amazingly open to chat), he’s agreed “what they are doing is not a full PoR” and he “didn’t believe it would be a widely consulted thing - [he] was mostly doing it to encourage custodians to take PoR seriously”. The point of a “proof” and why it’s called a “proof” is because it leaves no doubt. A Proof of Reserve needs to prove the reserves - that funds exist on the blockchain, are spendable by the platform, and fully back the assets of any customer who bothers to check. ShakePay’s does not.
Proof of Reserves
Presently all platforms in Canada have refused to provide visibility to the public blockchain entries backing funds on their platform. They have refused to sign a proof of spendability for any funds they control. All claims and verifications have been against customer lists provided by the platform with no ability for any customers to validate they were included. This is a recipe for more Gerald Cottens and Dave Smillies. I understand Proof of Reserve is not practical for all platforms. I was able to come up with an alternative that doesn’t require public blockchain visibility, could be implemented today using reputable third parties, and effectively validates all customers are included.
How We Could Have Safe Exchange Platforms In Canada
The first and largest issue has always been a lack of transparency. Far more funds have been lost to fraudulent platforms and wallet services than hacks. Honest platforms need to be giving greater visibility and certainty to their customers to make fraud obvious. Secondly, no platform employing offline storage and multi-sig has ever been breached. We need to agree on the basic standards of what it takes to keep assets secure and create an environment where best practices are shared instead of hidden between platforms. And thirdly, third party insurance incentivizes high fees, it limits coverage, and it does everything possible to avoid a payout. We need an organized insurance strategy that is run by platform operators and overseen with the full protection of Canadians in mind. What’s possible is exciting, but not guaranteed. There are a lot of irreversibly horrible futures which are even more likely if we merely sit back and watch.
You've probably been hearing a lot about Bitcoin recently and are wondering what's the big deal? Most of your questions should be answered by the resources below but if you have additional questions feel free to ask them in the comments. It all started with the release of the release of Satoshi Nakamoto's whitepaper however that will probably go over the head of most readers so we recommend the following aricles/books/videos as a good starting point for understanding how bitcoin works and a little about its long term potential:
Limited Supply - There will only ever be 21,000,000 bitcoin created and they are issued in a predictable fashion, you can view the inflation schedule here. Once they are all issued Bitcoin will be truly non-inflationary. The halving countdown can be found here.
Open source - Bitcoin code is fully auditable. You can read the source code yourself here.
Accountable - The public ledger is transparent, all transactions are seen by everyone.
Decentralized - Bitcoin is globally distributed across thousands of nodes with no single point of failure and as such can't be shut down similar to how Bittorrent works. You can even run a node on a Raspberry Pi.
Censorship resistant - No one can prevent you from interacting with the bitcoin network and no one can censor, alter or block transactions that they disagree with, see Operation Chokepoint.
Push system - There are no chargebacks in bitcoin because only the person who owns the address where the bitcoin resides has the authority to move them.
Low fee scaling - Fees are chosen by the sender - you can choose your own fee. An appropriate fee for an on-chain transaction depends on network demand and how much priority you wish to assign to the transaction. Most wallets calculate on chain fees automatically but you can view fee estimates here and mempool activity here. On chain fees may rise occasionally due to network demand, however instant micropayments that do not require confirmations are happening via the Lightning Network, a second layer scaling solution currently rolling out on the Bitcoin mainnet.
Borderless - No country can stop it from going in/out, even in areas currently unserved by traditional banking as the ledger is globally distributed.
Nearly instant - From a few seconds on the lightning network to a few minutes on-chain depending on need for confirmations. Transactions are irreversible by normal users after one confirmation and irreversible by anyone (including miners) after 6 confirmations.
Portable - Bitcoin are digital so they are easier to move than cash or gold. They can be transported by simply carrying a seed (a string of 12 to 24 words) on a device or by memorizing it for wallet recovery (while cool, memorizing is generally not recommended due to potential for forgetting the seed and the potential for insecure key generation by inexperienced users. Hardware wallets are the preferred method for most users for their ease of use and additional security).
Bitcoin.org and BuyBitcoinWorldwide.com are helpful sites for beginners. You can buy or sell any amount of bitcoin (even just a few dollars worth) and there are several easy methods to purchase bitcoin with cash, credit card or bank transfer. Some of the more popular resources are below, also check out the bitcoinity exchange resources for a larger list of options for purchases.
Here is a listing of local ATMs. If you would like your paycheck automatically converted to bitcoin use Bitwage. Note: Bitcoin are valued at whatever market price people are willing to pay for them in balancing act of supply vs demand. Unlike traditional markets, bitcoin markets operate 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Preev is a useful site that that shows how much various denominations of bitcoin are worth in different currencies. Alternatively you can just Google "1 bitcoin in (your local currency)".
Securing your bitcoin
With bitcoin you can "Be your own bank" and personally secure your bitcoin OR you can use third party companies aka "Bitcoin banks" which will hold the bitcoin for you.
If you prefer to "Be your own bank" and have direct control over your coins without having to use a trusted third party, then you will need to create your own wallet and keep it secure. If you want easy and secure storage without having to learn computer security best practices, then a hardware wallet such as the Trezor, Ledger or ColdCard is recommended. Alternatively there are many software wallet options to choose from here depending on your use case.
If you prefer to let third party "Bitcoin banks" manage your coins, try Gemini but be aware you may not be in control of your private keys in which case you would have to ask permission to access your funds and be exposed to third party risk.
Note: For increased security, use Two Factor Authentication (2FA) everywhere it is offered, including email! 2FA requires a second confirmation code or a physical security key to access your account making it much harder for thieves to gain access. Google Authenticator and Authy are the two most popular 2FA services, download links are below. Make sure you create backups of your 2FA codes.
Physical security keys (FIDO U2F) offer stronger security than Google Auth / Authy and other TOTP-based apps, because the secret code never leaves the device and it uses bi-directional authentication so it prevents phishing. If you lose the device though, you could lose access to your account, so always use 2 or more security keys with a given account so you have backups. See Yubikey or Titan to purchase security keys. Both Coinbase and Gemini support physical security keys.
Watch out for scams
As mentioned above, Bitcoin is decentralized, which by definition means there is no official website or Twitter handle or spokesperson or CEO. However, all money attracts thieves. This combination unfortunately results in scammers running official sounding names or pretending to be an authority on YouTube or social media. Many scammers throughout the years have claimed to be the inventor of Bitcoin. Websites like bitcoin(dot)com and the btc subreddit are active scams. Almost all altcoins (shitcoins) are marketed heavily with big promises but are really just designed to separate you from your bitcoin. So be careful: any resource, including all linked in this document, may in the future turn evil. Don't trust, verify. Also as they say in our community "Not your keys, not your coins".
Avoid using ad-based search engines like Google or Yahoo: ads are shown based on how much the advertiser bids, and scammers can easily outbid legitimate providers for ad space, since immoral ways of earning money are far more lucrative than moral ways. Use DuckDuckGo instead, which has no ads, and never tracks you as well.
Ignore private messages offering services.
Never enter your seed words in a website of any kind. Hardware wallets will recover by displaying possible seed words on their own interface, never on a website.
Avoid clicking on links like that look like links, such as https://www.google.com/, without first hovering over it and actually checking where they go to. Just because a link is labelled with an HTTPS address does not mean it actually sends you to that address. It is trivial for someone to comment a link on Reddit that looks like it will send you to one website when it actually sends you to another, and you might not notice the difference until a scammer has gotten all your money, or you have downloaded and installed software that steals your money.
Mining bitcoin can be a fun learning experience, but be aware that you will most likely operate at a loss. Newcomers are often advised to stay away from mining unless they are only interested in it as a hobby similar to folding at home. If you want to learn more about mining you can read more here. Still have mining questions? The crew at /BitcoinMining would be happy to help you out. If you want to contribute to the bitcoin network by hosting the blockchain and propagating transactions you can run a full node using this setup guide. If you would prefer to keep it simple there are several good options. You can view the global node distribution here.
Just like any other form of money, you can also earn bitcoin by being paid to do a job.
You can also earn bitcoin by participating as a market maker on JoinMarket by allowing users to perform CoinJoin transactions with your bitcoin for a small fee (requires you to already have some bitcoin).
The following is a short list of ongoing projects that might be worth taking a look at if you are interested in current development in the bitcoin space.
One Bitcoin is quite large (hundreds of £/$/€) so people often deal in smaller units. The most common subunits are listed below:
one bitcoin is equal to 100 million satoshis
1,000 per bitcoin
used as default unit in recent Electrum wallet releases
1,000,000 per bitcoin
colloquial "slang" term for microbitcoin (μBTC)
100,000,000 per bitcoin
smallest unit in bitcoin, named after the inventor
For example, assuming an arbitrary exchange rate of $10000 for one Bitcoin, a $10 meal would equal:
For more information check out the Bitcoin units wiki. Still have questions? Feel free to ask in the comments below or stick around for our weekly Mentor Monday thread. If you decide to post a question in /Bitcoin, please use the search bar to see if it has been answered before, and remember to follow the community rules outlined on the sidebar to receive a better response. The mods are busy helping manage our community so please do not message them unless you notice problems with the functionality of the subreddit. Note: This is a community created FAQ. If you notice anything missing from the FAQ or that requires clarification you can edit it here and it will be included in the next revision pending approval. Welcome to the Bitcoin community and the new decentralized economy!
https://github.com/gridcoin-community/Gridcoin-Research/releases/tag/184.108.40.206 Finally! After over ten months of development and testing, "Fern" has arrived! This is a whopper. 240 pull requests merged. Essentially a complete rewrite that was started with the scraper (the "neural net" rewrite) in "Denise" has now been completed. Practically the ENTIRE Gridcoin specific codebase resting on top of the vanilla Bitcoin/Peercoin/Blackcoin vanilla PoS code has been rewritten. This removes the team requirement at last (see below), although there are many other important improvements besides that. Fern was a monumental undertaking. We had to encode all of the old rules active for the v10 block protocol in new code and ensure that the new code was 100% compatible. This had to be done in such a way as to clear out all of the old spaghetti and ring-fence it with tightly controlled class implementations. We then wrote an entirely new, simplified ruleset for research rewards and reengineered contracts (which includes beacon management, polls, and voting) using properly classed code. The fundamentals of Gridcoin with this release are now on a very sound and maintainable footing, and the developers believe the codebase as updated here will serve as the fundamental basis for Gridcoin's future roadmap. We have been testing this for MONTHS on testnet in various stages. The v10 (legacy) compatibility code has been running on testnet continuously as it was developed to ensure compatibility with existing nodes. During the last few months, we have done two private testnet forks and then the full public testnet testing for v11 code (the new protocol which is what Fern implements). The developers have also been running non-staking "sentinel" nodes on mainnet with this code to verify that the consensus rules are problem-free for the legacy compatibility code on the broader mainnet. We believe this amount of testing is going to result in a smooth rollout. Given the amount of changes in Fern, I am presenting TWO changelogs below. One is high level, which summarizes the most significant changes in the protocol. The second changelog is the detailed one in the usual format, and gives you an inkling of the size of this release.
Note that the protocol changes will not become active until we cross the hard-fork transition height to v11, which has been set at 2053000. Given current average block spacing, this should happen around October 4, about one month from now. Note that to get all of the beacons in the network on the new protocol, we are requiring ALL beacons to be validated. A two week (14 day) grace period is provided by the code, starting at the time of the transition height, for people currently holding a beacon to validate the beacon and prevent it from expiring. That means that EVERY CRUNCHER must advertise and validate their beacon AFTER the v11 transition (around Oct 4th) and BEFORE October 18th (or more precisely, 14 days from the actual date of the v11 transition). If you do not advertise and validate your beacon by this time, your beacon will expire and you will stop earning research rewards until you advertise and validate a new beacon. This process has been made much easier by a brand new beacon "wizard" that helps manage beacon advertisements and renewals. Once a beacon has been validated and is a v11 protocol beacon, the normal 180 day expiration rules apply. Note, however, that the 180 day expiration on research rewards has been removed with the Fern update. This means that while your beacon might expire after 180 days, your earned research rewards will be retained and can be claimed by advertising a beacon with the same CPID and going through the validation process again. In other words, you do not lose any earned research rewards if you do not stake a block within 180 days and keep your beacon up-to-date. The transition height is also when the team requirement will be relaxed for the network.
Besides the beacon wizard, there are a number of improvements to the GUI, including new UI transaction types (and icons) for staking the superblock, sidestake sends, beacon advertisement, voting, poll creation, and transactions with a message. The main screen has been revamped with a better summary section, and better status icons. Several changes under the hood have improved GUI performance. And finally, the diagnostics have been revamped.
The wallet sync speed has been DRASTICALLY improved. A decent machine with a good network connection should be able to sync the entire mainnet blockchain in less than 4 hours. A fast machine with a really fast network connection and a good SSD can do it in about 2.5 hours. One of our goals was to reduce or eliminate the reliance on snapshots for mainnet, and I think we have accomplished that goal with the new sync speed. We have also streamlined the in-memory structures for the blockchain which shaves some memory use. There are so many goodies here it is hard to summarize them all. I would like to thank all of the contributors to this release, but especially thank @cyrossignol, whose incredible contributions formed the backbone of this release. I would also like to pay special thanks to @barton2526, @caraka, and @Quezacoatl1, who tirelessly helped during the testing and polishing phase on testnet with testing and repeated builds for all architectures. The developers are proud to present this release to the community and we believe this represents the starting point for a true renaissance for Gridcoin!
Most significantly, nodes calculate research rewards directly from the magnitudes in EACH superblock between stakes instead of using a two- or three- point average based on a CPID's current magnitude and the magnitude for the CPID when it last staked. For those long-timers in the community, this has been referred to as "Superblock Windows," and was first done in proof-of-concept form by @denravonska.
Network magnitude unit pinned to a static value of 0.25
Max research reward allowed per block raised to 16384 GRC (from 12750 GRC)
New CPIDs begin accruing research rewards from the first superblock that contains the CPID instead of from the time of the beacon advertisement
500 GRC research reward limit for a CPID's first stake
6-month expiration for unclaimed rewards
10-block spacing requirement between research reward claims
Rolling 5-day payment-per-day limit
Legacy tolerances for floating-point error and time drift
The need to include a valid copy of a CPID's magnitude in a claim
10-block emission adjustment interval for the magnitude unit
One-time beacon activation requires that participants temporarily change their usernames to a verification code at one whitelisted BOINC project
Verification codes of pending beacons expire after 3 days
Self-service beacon removal
Burn fee for beacon advertisement increased from 0.00001 GRC to 0.5 GRC
Rain addresses derived from beacon keys instead of a default wallet address
Beacon expiration determined as of the current block instead of the previous block
The ability for developers to remove beacons
The ability to sign research reward claims with non-current but unexpired beacons
As a reminder:
Beacons expire after 6 months pass (180 days)
Beacons can be renewed after 5 months pass (150 days)
Renewed beacons must be signed with the same key as the original beacon
Magnitudes less than 1 include two fractional places
Magnitudes greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10 include one fractional place
A valid superblock must match a scraper convergence
Superblock popularity election mechanics
Yes/no/abstain and single-choice response types (no user-facing support yet)
To create a poll, a maximum of 250 UTXOs for a single address must add up to 100000 GRC. These are selected from the largest downwards.
Burn fee for creating polls scaled by the number of UTXOs claimed
50 GRC for a poll contract
0.001 GRC per claimed UTXO
Burn fee for casting votes scaled by the number of UTXOs claimed
0.01 GRC for a vote contract
0.01 GRC to claim magnitude
0.01 GRC per claimed address
0.001 GRC per claimed UTXO
Maximum length of a poll title: 80 characters
Maximum length of a poll question: 100 characters
Maximum length of a poll discussion website URL: 100 characters
Maximum number of poll choices: 20
Maximum length of a poll choice label: 100 characters
Magnitude, CPID count, and participant count poll weight types
The ability for developers to remove polls and votes
[220.127.116.11] 2020-09-03, mandatory, "Fern"
Backport newer uint256 types from Bitcoin #1570 (@cyrossignol)
Implement project level rain for rainbymagnitude #1580 (@jamescowens)
Upgrade utilities (Update checker and snapshot downloadeapplication) #1576 (@iFoggz)
Provide fees collected in the block by the miner #1601 (@iFoggz)
Add support for generating legacy superblocks from scraper stats #1603 (@cyrossignol)
Port of the Bitcoin Logger to Gridcoin #1600 (@jamescowens)
Implement zapwallettxes #1605 (@jamescowens)
Implements a global event filter to suppress help question mark #1609 (@jamescowens)
Add next target difficulty to RPC output #1615 (@cyrossignol)
Add caching for block hashes to CBlock #1624 (@cyrossignol)
Make toolbars and tray icon red for testnet #1637 (@jamescowens)
Add an rpc call convergencereport #1643 (@jamescowens)
Implement newline filter on config file read in #1645 (@jamescowens)
Implement beacon status icon/button #1646 (@jamescowens)
Add gridcointestnet.png #1649 (@caraka)
Add precision to support magnitudes less than 1 #1651 (@cyrossignol)
Replace research accrual calculations with superblock snapshots #1657 (@cyrossignol)
Publish example gridcoinresearch.conf as a md document to the doc directory #1662 (@jamescowens)
Add options checkbox to disable transaction notifications #1666 (@jamescowens)
Add support for self-service beacon deletion #1695 (@cyrossignol)
Add support for type-specific contract fee amounts #1698 (@cyrossignol)
Add verifiedbeaconreport and pendingbeaconreport #1696 (@jamescowens)
Add preliminary testing option for block v11 height on testnet #1706 (@cyrossignol)
Add verified beacons manifest part to superblock validator #1711 (@cyrossignol)
Implement beacon, vote, and superblock display categories/icons in UI transaction model #1717 (@jamescowens)
Dragonchain Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off Public Proposal
Dragonchain Public Proposal TL;DR:
Dragonchain has demonstrated twice Reddit’s entire total daily volume (votes, comments, and postsper Reddit 2019 Year in Review) in a 24-hour demo on an operational network. Every single transaction on Dragonchain is decentralized immediately through 5 levels of Dragon Net, and then secured with combined proof on Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Binance Chain, via Interchain. At the time, in January 2020, the entire cost of the demo was approximately $25K on a single system (transaction fees locked at $0.0001/txn). With current fees (lowest fee $0.0000025/txn), this would cost as little as $625. Watch Joe walk through the entire proposal and answer questions onYouTube. This proposal is also available on the Dragonchain blog.
Hello Reddit and Ethereum community!
I’m Joe Roets, Founder & CEO of Dragonchain. When the team and I first heard about The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off we were intrigued. We believe we have the solutions Reddit seeks for its community points system and we have them at scale. For your consideration, we have submitted our proposal below. The team at Dragonchain and I welcome and look forward to your technical questions, philosophical feedback, and fair criticism, to build a scaling solution for Reddit that will empower its users. Because our architecture is unlike other blockchain platforms out there today, we expect to receive many questions while people try to grasp our project. I will answer all questions here in this thread on Reddit, and I've answered some questions in the stream on YouTube. We have seen good discussions so far in the competition. We hope that Reddit’s scaling solution will emerge from The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off and that Reddit will have great success with the implementation.
Dragonchain is a robust open source hybrid blockchain platform that has proven to withstand the passing of time since our inception in 2014. We have continued to evolve to harness the scalability of private nodes, yet take full advantage of the security of public decentralized networks, like Ethereum. We have a live, operational, and fully functional Interchain network integrating Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and ~700 independent Dragonchain nodes. Every transaction is secured to Ethereum, Bitcoin, and Ethereum Classic. Transactions are immediately usable on chain, and the first decentralization is seen within 20 seconds on Dragon Net. Security increases further to public networks ETH, BTC, and ETC within 10 minutes to 2 hours. Smart contracts can be written in any executable language, offering full freedom to existing developers. We invite any developer to watch the demo, play with our SDK’s, review open source code, and to help us move forward. Dragonchain specializes in scalable loyalty & rewards solutions and has built a decentralized social network on chain, with very affordable transaction costs. This experience can be combined with the insights Reddit and the Ethereum community have gained in the past couple of months to roll out the solution at a rapid pace.
Response and PoC
In The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off post, Reddit has asked for a series of demonstrations, requirements, and other considerations. In this section, we will attempt to answer all of these requests.
A live proof of concept showing hundreds of thousands of transactions
On Jan 7, 2020, Dragonchain hosted a 24-hour live demonstration during which a quarter of a billion (250 million+) transactions executed fully on an operational network. Every single transaction on Dragonchain is decentralized immediately through 5 levels of Dragon Net, and then secured with combined proof on Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Binance Chain, via Interchain. This means that every single transaction is secured by, and traceable to these networks. An attack on this system would require a simultaneous attack on all of the Interchained networks. 24 hours in 4 minutes (YouTube): 24 hours in 4 minutes The demonstration was of a single business system, and any user is able to scale this further, by running multiple systems simultaneously. Our goals for the event were to demonstrate a consistent capacity greater than that of Visa over an extended time period. Tooling to reproduce our demo is available here: https://github.com/dragonchain/spirit-bomb
Source code (for on & off-chain components as well tooling used for the PoC). The source code does not have to be shared publicly, but if Reddit decides to use a particular solution it will need to be shared with Reddit at some point.
Dragonchain’s architecture attacks the scalability issue from multiple angles. Dragonchain is a hybrid blockchain platform, wherein every transaction is protected on a business node to the requirements of that business or purpose. A business node may be held completely private or may be exposed or replicated to any level of exposure desired. Every node has its own blockchain and is independently scalable. Dragonchain established Context Based Verification as its consensus model. Every transaction is immediately usable on a trust basis, and in time is provable to an increasing level of decentralized consensus. A transaction will have a level of decentralization to independently owned and deployed Dragonchain nodes (~700 nodes) within seconds, and full decentralization to BTC and ETH within minutes or hours. Level 5 nodes (Interchain nodes) function to secure all transactions to public or otherwise external chains such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. These nodes scale the system by aggregating multiple blocks into a single Interchain transaction on a cadence. This timing is configurable based upon average fees for each respective chain. For detailed information about Dragonchain’s architecture, and Context Based Verification, please refer to the Dragonchain Architecture Document.
An interesting feature of Dragonchain’s network consensus is its economics and scarcity model. Since Dragon Net nodes (L2-L4) are independent staking nodes, deployment to cloud platforms would allow any of these nodes to scale to take on a large percentage of the verification work. This is great for scalability, but not good for the economy, because there is no scarcity, and pricing would develop a downward spiral and result in fewer verification nodes. For this reason, Dragonchain uses TIME as scarcity. TIME is calculated as the number of Dragons held, multiplied by the number of days held. TIME influences the user’s access to features within the Dragonchain ecosystem. It takes into account both the Dragon balance and length of time each Dragon is held. TIME is staked by users against every verification node and dictates how much of the transaction fees are awarded to each participating node for every block. TIME also dictates the transaction fee itself for the business node. TIME is staked against a business node to set a deterministic transaction fee level (see transaction fee table below in Cost section). This is very interesting in a discussion about scaling because it guarantees independence for business implementation. No matter how much traffic appears on the entire network, a business is guaranteed to not see an increased transaction fee rate.
Dragonchain uses Docker and Kubernetes to allow the use of best practices traditional system scaling. Dragonchain offers managed nodes with an easy to use web based console interface. The user may also deploy a Dragonchain node within their own datacenter or favorite cloud platform. Users have deployed Dragonchain nodes on-prem on Amazon AWS, Google Cloud, MS Azure, and other hosting platforms around the world. Any executable code, anything you can write, can be written into a smart contract. This flexibility is what allows us to say that developers with no blockchain experience can use any code language to access the benefits of blockchain. Customers have used NodeJS, Python, Java, and even BASH shell script to write smart contracts on Dragonchain. With Docker containers, we achieve better separation of concerns, faster deployment, higher reliability, and lower response times. We chose Kubernetes for its self-healing features, ability to run multiple services on one server, and its large and thriving development community. It is resilient, scalable, and automated. OpenFaaS allows us to package smart contracts as Docker images for easy deployment. Contract deployment time is now bounded only by the size of the Docker image being deployed but remains fast even for reasonably large images. We also take advantage of Docker’s flexibility and its ability to support any language that can run on x86 architecture. Any image, public or private, can be run as a smart contract using Dragonchain.
Flexibility in Scaling
Dragonchain’s architecture considers interoperability and integration as key features. From inception, we had a goal to increase adoption via integration with real business use cases and traditional systems. We envision the ability for Reddit, in the future, to be able to integrate alternate content storage platforms or other financial services along with the token.
LBRY - To allow users to deploy content natively to LBRY
MakerDAO to allow users to lend small amounts backed by their Reddit community points.
STORJ/SIA to allow decentralized on chain storage of portions of content. These integrations or any other are relatively easy to integrate on Dragonchain with an Interchain implementation.
Cost estimates (on-chain and off-chain) For the purpose of this proposal, we assume that all transactions are on chain (posts, replies, and votes).
On the Dragonchain network, transaction costs are deterministic/predictable. By staking TIME on the business node (as described above) Reddit can reduce transaction costs to as low as $0.0000025 per transaction. Dragonchain Fees Table
How to run it
Building on Dragonchain is simple and requires no blockchain experience. Spin up a business node (L1) in our managed environment (AWS), run it in your own cloud environment, or on-prem in your own datacenter. Clear documentation will walk you through the steps of spinning up your first Dragonchain Level 1 Business node. Getting started is easy...
Download Dragonchain’s dctl
Input three commands into a terminal
Build an image
More information can be found in our Get started documents.
Dragonchain is an open source hybrid platform. Through Dragon Net, each chain combines the power of a public blockchain (like Ethereum) with the privacy of a private blockchain. Dragonchain organizes its network into five separate levels. A Level 1, or business node, is a totally private blockchain only accessible through the use of public/private keypairs. All business logic, including smart contracts, can be executed on this node directly and added to the chain. After creating a block, the Level 1 business node broadcasts a version stripped of sensitive private data to Dragon Net. Three Level 2 Validating nodes validate the transaction based on guidelines determined from the business. A Level 3 Diversity node checks that the level 2 nodes are from a diverse array of locations. A Level 4 Notary node, hosted by a KYC partner, then signs the validation record received from the Level 3 node. The transaction hash is ledgered to the Level 5 public chain to take advantage of the hash power of massive public networks. Dragon Net can be thought of as a “blockchain of blockchains”, where every level is a complete private blockchain. Because an L1 can send to multiple nodes on a single level, proof of existence is distributed among many places in the network. Eventually, proof of existence reaches level 5 and is published on a public network.
Dragonchain is open source and even though the platform is easy enough for developers to code in any language they are comfortable with, we do not have so large a developer community as Ethereum. We would like to see the Ethereum developer community (and any other communities) become familiar with our SDK’s, our solutions, and our platform, to unlock the full potential of our Ethereum Interchain. Long ago we decided to prioritize both Bitcoin and Ethereum Interchains. We envision an ecosystem that encompasses different projects to give developers the ability to take full advantage of all the opportunities blockchain offers to create decentralized solutions not only for Reddit but for all of our current platforms and systems. We believe that together we will take the adoption of blockchain further. We currently have additional Interchain with Ethereum Classic. We look forward to Interchain with other blockchains in the future. We invite all blockchains projects who believe in decentralization and security to Interchain with Dragonchain.
While we only have 700 nodes compared to 8,000 Ethereum and 10,000 Bitcoin nodes. We harness those 18,000 nodes to scale to extremely high levels of security. See Dragonchain metrics.
Some may consider the centralization of Dragonchain’s business nodes as an issue at first glance, however, the model is by design to protect business data. We do not consider this a drawback as these nodes can make any, none, or all data public. Depending upon the implementation, every subreddit could have control of its own business node, for potential business and enterprise offerings, bringing new alternative revenue streams to Reddit.
Costs and resources
Summary of cost & resource information for both on-chain & off-chain components used in the PoC, as well as cost & resource estimates for further scaling. If your PoC is not on mainnet, make note of any mainnet caveats (such as congestion issues).
Every transaction on the PoC system had a transaction fee of $0.0001 (one-hundredth of a cent USD). At 256MM transactions, the demo cost $25,600. With current operational fees, the same demonstration would cost $640 USD. For the demonstration, to achieve throughput to mimic a worldwide payments network, we modeled several clients in AWS and 4-5 business nodes to handle the traffic. The business nodes were tuned to handle higher throughput by adjusting memory and machine footprint on AWS. This flexibility is valuable to implementing a system such as envisioned by Reddit. Given that Reddit’s daily traffic (posts, replies, and votes) is less than half that of our demo, we would expect that the entire Reddit system could be handled on 2-5 business nodes using right-sized containers on AWS or similar environments. Verification was accomplished on the operational Dragon Net network with over 700 independently owned verification nodes running around the world at no cost to the business other than paid transaction fees.
This PoC should scale to the numbers below with minimal costs (both on & off-chain). There should also be a clear path to supporting hundreds of millions of users. Over a 5 day period, your scaling PoC should be able to handle: *100,000 point claims (minting & distributing points) *25,000 subscriptions *75,000 one-off points burning *100,000 transfers
During Dragonchain’s 24 hour demo, the above required numbers were reached within the first few minutes. Reddit’s total activity is 9000% more than Ethereum’s total transaction level. Even if you do not include votes, it is still 700% more than Ethereum’s current volume. Dragonchain has demonstrated that it can handle 250 million transactions a day, and it’s architecture allows for multiple systems to work at that level simultaneously. In our PoC, we demonstrate double the full capacity of Reddit, and every transaction was proven all the way to Bitcoin and Ethereum. Reddit Scaling on Ethereum
Solutions should not depend on any single third-party provider. We prefer solutions that do not depend on specific entities such as Reddit or another provider, and solutions with no single point of control or failure in off-chain components but recognize there are numerous trade-offs to consider
Dragonchain’s architecture calls for a hybrid approach. Private business nodes hold the sensitive data while the validation and verification of transactions for the business are decentralized within seconds and secured to public blockchains within 10 minutes to 2 hours. Nodes could potentially be controlled by owners of individual subreddits for more organic decentralization.
Billing is currently centralized - there is a path to federation and decentralization of a scaled billing solution.
Operational on-premises capabilities
Operational deployment to any datacenter
Over 700 independent Community Verification Nodes with proof of ownership
Operational Interchain (Interoperable to Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Ethereum Classic, open to more)
Usability Scaling solutions should have a simple end user experience.
Users shouldn't have to maintain any extra state/proofs, regularly monitor activity, keep track of extra keys, or sign anything other than their normal transactions
Dragonchain and its customers have demonstrated extraordinary usability as a feature in many applications, where users do not need to know that the system is backed by a live blockchain. Lyceum is one of these examples, where the progress of academy courses is being tracked, and successful completion of courses is rewarded with certificates on chain. Our @Save_The_Tweet bot is popular on Twitter. When used with one of the following hashtags - #please, #blockchain, #ThankYou, or #eternalize the tweet is saved through Eternal to multiple blockchains. A proof report is available for future reference. Other examples in use are DEN, our decentralized social media platform, and our console, where users can track their node rewards, view their TIME, and operate a business node. Examples:
Transactions complete in a reasonable amount of time (seconds or minutes, not hours or days)
All transactions are immediately usable on chain by the system. A transaction begins the path to decentralization at the conclusion of a 5-second block when it gets distributed across 5 separate community run nodes. Full decentralization occurs within 10 minutes to 2 hours depending on which interchain (Bitcoin, Ethereum, or Ethereum Classic) the transaction hits first. Within approximately 2 hours, the combined hash power of all interchained blockchains secures the transaction.
Free to use for end users (no gas fees, or fixed/minimal fees that Reddit can pay on their behalf)
With transaction pricing as low as $0.0000025 per transaction, it may be considered reasonable for Reddit to cover transaction fees for users. All of Reddit's Transactions on Blockchain (month) Community points can be earned by users and distributed directly to their Reddit account in batch (as per Reddit minting plan), and allow users to withdraw rewards to their Ethereum wallet whenever they wish. Withdrawal fees can be paid by either user or Reddit. This model has been operating inside the Dragonchain system since 2018, and many security and financial compliance features can be optionally added. We feel that this capability greatly enhances user experience because it is seamless to a regular user without cryptocurrency experience, yet flexible to a tech savvy user. With regard to currency or token transactions, these would occur on the Reddit network, verified to BTC and ETH. These transactions would incur the $0.0000025 transaction fee. To estimate this fee we use the monthly active Reddit users statista with a 60% adoption rate and an estimated 10 transactions per month average resulting in an approximate $720 cost across the system. Reddit could feasibly incur all associated internal network charges (mining/minting, transfer, burn) as these are very low and controllable fees. Reddit Internal Token Transaction Fees Reddit Ethereum Token Transaction Fees When we consider further the Ethereum fees that might be incurred, we have a few choices for a solution.
Offload all Ethereum transaction fees (user withdrawals) to interested users as they wish to withdraw tokens for external use or sale.
Cover Ethereum transaction fees by aggregating them on a timed schedule. Users would request withdrawal (from Reddit or individual subreddits), and they would be transacted on the Ethereum network every hour (or some other schedule).
In a combination of the above, customers could cover aggregated fees.
Integrate with alternate Ethereum roll up solutions or other proposals to aggregate minting and distribution transactions onto Ethereum.
Users should be able to view their balances & transactions via a blockchain explorer-style interface
From interfaces for users who have no knowledge of blockchain technology to users who are well versed in blockchain terms such as those present in a typical block explorer, a system powered by Dragonchain has flexibility on how to provide balances and transaction data to users. Transactions can be made viewable in an Eternal Proof Report, which displays raw data along with TIME staking information and traceability all the way to Bitcoin, Ethereum, and every other Interchained network. The report shows fields such as transaction ID, timestamp, block ID, multiple verifications, and Interchain proof. See example here. Node payouts within the Dragonchain console are listed in chronological order and can be further seen in either Dragons or USD. See example here. In our social media platform, Dragon Den, users can see, in real-time, their NRG and MTR balances. See example here. A new influencer app powered by Dragonchain, Raiinmaker, breaks down data into a user friendly interface that shows coin portfolio, redeemed rewards, and social scores per campaign. See example here.
Exiting is fast & simple
Withdrawing funds on Dragonchain’s console requires three clicks, however, withdrawal scenarios with more enhanced security features per Reddit’s discretion are obtainable.
Interoperability Compatibility with third party apps (wallets/contracts/etc) is necessary.
Proven interoperability at scale that surpasses the required specifications. Our entire platform consists of interoperable blockchains connected to each other and traditional systems. APIs are well documented. Third party permissions are possible with a simple smart contract without the end user being aware. No need to learn any specialized proprietary language. Any code base (not subsets) is usable within a Docker container. Interoperable with any blockchain or traditional APIs. We’ve witnessed relatively complex systems built by engineers with no blockchain or cryptocurrency experience. We’ve also demonstrated the creation of smart contracts within minutes built with BASH shell and Node.js. Please see our source code and API documentation.
Scaling solutions should be extensible and allow third parties to build on top of it Open source and extensible APIs should be well documented and stable
Third-party permissionless integrations should be possible & straightforward Smart contracts are Docker based, can be written in any language, use full language (not subsets), and can therefore be integrated with any system including traditional system APIs. Simple is better. Learning an uncommon or proprietary language should not be necessary.
Advanced knowledge of mathematics, cryptography, or L2 scaling should not be required. Compatibility with common utilities & toolchains is expected. Dragonchain business nodes and smart contracts leverage Docker to allow the use of literally any language or executable code. No proprietary language is necessary. We’ve witnessed relatively complex systems built by engineers with no blockchain or cryptocurrency experience. We’ve also demonstrated the creation of smart contracts within minutes built with BASH shell and Node.js.
Bonus Points: Show us how it works. Do you have an idea for a cool new use case for Community Points? Build it!
Community points could be awarded to Reddit users based upon TIME too, whereas the longer someone is part of a subreddit, the more community points someone naturally gained, even if not actively commenting or sharing new posts. A daily login could be required for these community points to be credited. This grants awards to readers too and incentivizes readers to create an account on Reddit if they browse the website often. This concept could also be leveraged to provide some level of reputation based upon duration and consistency of contribution to a community subreddit.
Dragonchain has already built a social media platform that harnesses community involvement. Dragon Den is a decentralized community built on the Dragonchain blockchain platform. Dragon Den is Dragonchain’s answer to fake news, trolling, and censorship. It incentivizes the creation and evaluation of quality content within communities. It could be described as being a shareholder of a subreddit or Reddit in its entirety. The more your subreddit is thriving, the more rewarding it will be. Den is currently in a public beta and in active development, though the real token economy is not live yet. There are different tokens for various purposes. Two tokens are Lair Ownership Rights (LOR) and Lair Ownership Tokens (LOT). LOT is a non-fungible token for ownership of a specific Lair. LOT will only be created and converted from LOR. Energy (NRG) and Matter (MTR) work jointly. Your MTR determines how much NRG you receive in a 24-hour period. Providing quality content, or evaluating content will earn MTR.
Security. Users have full ownership & control of their points.
All community points awarded based upon any type of activity or gift, are secured and provable to all Interchain networks (currently BTC, ETH, ETC). Users are free to spend and withdraw their points as they please, depending on the features Reddit wants to bring into production.
Balances and transactions cannot be forged, manipulated, or blocked by Reddit or anyone else
Users can withdraw their balance to their ERC20 wallet, directly through Reddit. Reddit can cover the fees on their behalf, or the user covers this with a portion of their balance.
Users should own their points and be able to get on-chain ERC20 tokens without permission from anyone else
Through our console users can withdraw their ERC20 rewards. This can be achieved on Reddit too. Here is a walkthrough of our console, though this does not show the quick withdrawal functionality, a user can withdraw at any time. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aNlTMxnfVHw
Points should be recoverable to on-chain ERC20 tokens even if all third-parties involved go offline
If necessary, signed transactions from the Reddit system (e.g. Reddit + Subreddit) can be sent to the Ethereum smart contract for minting.
A public, third-party review attesting to the soundness of the design should be available
To our knowledge, at least two large corporations, including a top 3 accounting firm, have conducted positive reviews. These reviews have never been made public, as Dragonchain did not pay or contract for these studies to be released.
Bonus points Public, third-party implementation review available or in progress
Compatibility with HSMs & hardware wallets
For the purpose of this proposal, all tokenization would be on the Ethereum network using standard token contracts and as such, would be able to leverage all hardware wallet and Ethereum ecosystem services.
Minting/distributing tokens is not performed by Reddit directly
This operation can be automated by smart contract on Ethereum. Subreddits can if desired have a role to play.
One off point burning, as well as recurring, non-interactive point burning (for subreddit memberships) should be possible and scalable
This is possible and scalable with interaction between Dragonchain Reddit system and Ethereum token contract(s).
Fully open-source solutions are strongly preferred
Dragonchain is fully open source (see section on Disney release after conclusion).
Whether it is today, or in the future, we would like to work together to bring secure flexibility to the highest standards. It is our hope to be considered by Ethereum, Reddit, and other integrative solutions so we may further discuss the possibilities of implementation. In our public demonstration, 256 million transactions were handled in our operational network on chain in 24 hours, for the low cost of $25K, which if run today would cost $625. Dragonchain’s interoperable foundation provides the atmosphere necessary to implement a frictionless community points system. Thank you for your consideration of our proposal. We look forward to working with the community to make something great!
Disney Releases Blockchain Platform as Open Source
The team at Disney created the Disney Private Blockchain Platform. The system was a hybrid interoperable blockchain platform for ledgering and smart contract development geared toward solving problems with blockchain adoption and usability. All objective evaluation would consider the team’s output a success. We released a list of use cases that we explored in some capacity at Disney, and our input on blockchain standardization as part of our participation in the W3C Blockchain Community Group. https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-blockchain/2016May/0052.html
In 2016, Roets proposed to release the platform as open source to spread the technology outside of Disney, as others within the W3C group were interested in the solutions that had been created inside of Disney. Following a long process, step by step, the team met requirements for release. Among the requirements, the team had to:
Obtain VP support and approval for the release
Verify ownership of the software to be released
Verify that no proprietary content would be released
Convince the organization that there was a value to the open source community
Convince the organization that there was a value to Disney
Offer the plan for ongoing maintenance of the project outside of Disney
Itemize competing projects
Verify no conflict of interest
Change the project name to not use the name Disney, any Disney character, or any other associated IP - proposed Dragonchain - approved
Obtain legal approval
Approval from corporate, parks, and other business units
Approval from multiple Disney patent groups Copyright holder defined by Disney (Disney Connected and Advanced Technologies)
Trademark searches conducted for the selected name Dragonchain
Obtain IT security approval
Manual review of OSS components conducted
OWASP Dependency and Vulnerability Check Conducted
Obtain technical (software) approval
Offer management, process, and financial plans for the maintenance of the project.
Meet list of items to be addressed before release
Remove all Disney project references and scripts
Create a public distribution list for email communications
Remove Roets’ direct and internal contact information
Create public Slack channel and move from Disney slack channels
Create proper labels for issue tracking
Rename internal private Github repository
Add informative description to Github page
Expand README.md with more specific information
Add information beyond current “Blockchains are Magic”
Add getting started sections and info on cloning/forking the project
Add installation details
Add uninstall process
Add unit, functional, and integration test information
Detail how to contribute and get involved
Describe the git workflow that the project will use
Move to public, non-Disney git repository (Github or Bitbucket)
Obtain Disney Open Source Committee approval for release
On top of meeting the above criteria, as part of the process, the maintainer of the project had to receive the codebase on their own personal email and create accounts for maintenance (e.g. Github) with non-Disney accounts. Given the fact that the project spanned multiple business units, Roets was individually responsible for its ongoing maintenance. Because of this, he proposed in the open source application to create a non-profit organization to hold the IP and maintain the project. This was approved by Disney. The Disney Open Source Committee approved the application known as OSSRELEASE-10, and the code was released on October 2, 2016. Disney decided to not issue a press release. Original OSSRELASE-10 document
IPFS— The New-gen Tech Revolution, or Another Illusion?
Founded in 2014, after 6 years of R & D as well as its expansion, and after nearly a year of extensive testing and preparation, IPFS (Interplanetary File System) was officially launched on the afternoon of October 15, 2020, UTC time. 12 hours after the mainnet went online, Its token price fluctuated between 50~70 USD/FIL. However, panic and pessimism began to spread between the IPFS community and FIL token holders. Based on the total amount of FIL (2 billion) and the unit price of 50 US dollars estimation, its market value has exceeded 100 billion US dollars, second only to BTC. As such a mega valued IPFS/FIL went online, if there is no enough application to support, the selling pressure after the FIL is gradually unlocked will become huge. According to calculations, on the first day of the mainnet launch, there will be 239,000 FILs to be sold. Assuming that the unit price is 30 USD, the released circulation will be 8 million USD. Assuming the unit price remains unchanged, the market will usher in a similar value on the 10th day. With a release amount of 15 million USD, it is very likely that the corresponding token price can be supported. IPFS is a network transmission protocol designed to create persistent and distributed storage and sharing of files. In terms of its current active projects and companies, IPFS has added more than 5 billion files, involving multiple industries, and there are also many blockchain companies using this technology. When the IPFS mainnet and its Filecoin goes online, the market value will be based on the applications brought by the IPFS network. After Bitcoin and Ethereum, Filecoin is an upstart in the blockchain industry with a revolutionary technological breakthrough. The market predicts that Filecoin’s market value will surpass Bitcoin. Now let us analyze this project together that was given high hopes: IPFS major features and disadvantages The basic application of IPFS, Filecoin’s financial attributes and its incentive mechanism make it a very exciting global collaborative open source project. On this basis, the data of all mankind is stored in the IPFS network, and no one can tamper with it. This magnificent scene provides at least three values for us:
It creates a storage network service that is license-free and trust-free. This is very important. When you want to access a digital file, you don’t need to get approval or filing from any organization, and strict certification. As for non-centralized trust, it does not require user to trust the supplier that provides storage services, which significantly reduces the cost.
The successful application of IPFS will most likely enable all idle storage resources in the world to be gathered to form a network and be effectively used, and such a network is unprecedented.
Through such a model, network redundancy can be effectively reduced, and the complete separation of data can be achieved. There is no need to store files in a fixed location, only the content needs to be stored in an IPFS and Filecoin network.
However, Plentiful in ideal yet bony in reality. The design flaws of the IPFS project make it difficult to truly apply in the practical environment. Its design flaws mainly focus in the following aspects:
Cannot support hot data storage.
Based on the principle of data timeliness, the higher the frequency of data access, the greater the value of the data possess. At present, IPFS only supports cold data storage scenarios. The lack of support for network transmission makes it impossible to establish a transmission network for hot data, which means the lack of the most valuable support for the network.
The disaster tolerance mechanism is missing.
Disaster tolerance means that when an IT system stops working due to an accident (such as fire, earthquake, etc.), the entire application system can be switched to another location so that the system functions can continue to work normally. IPFS / Filecoin does not provide reliable disaster recovery and recovery mechanisms for storage users. Storage miners arecentrally handling disaster recovery backup and recovery works, resulting in an increase in storage space redundancy by 2–3 times.
The storage performance is reduced by more than 60 times.
The IPFS data verification mechanism is too ideal and complex, and its storage performance is more than 60 times lower than that of a traditional centralized storage system. 1TB files usually need to be verified for more than 10 hours and cannot be stored normally and efficiently.
Centralized technology architecture.
IPFS requires pretty advanced hardware, which leads to a very high threshold for joining its storage network. At present, only specialized storage devices can join the IPFS network as storage nodes. This means that IPFS initially advertised to users that connecting ordinary idle storage and reducing storage costs, has become a flubdub. It is difficult to store the entire network in a centralized structure in a disguised form, which cannot greatly reduce the storage cost of the entire network and ensure the security of the entire network.
Due to the lack of the decentralized governance mechanism, its governance is too despotic, leading to a certain harm to the participated communities.
The above are the main obstacles currently hindering IPFS and Filecoin. The good news is that some of them can be improved and perfected, while some are design mechanism problems and cannot be fixed. Let’s take a look at another project initiated in the tech circle in 2017 — -HOP: What is HOP The HOP protocol provides a decentralized and completely anonymous traffic service for people all over the world based on block chain. HOP combines P2P network transmission and block chain technology to establish a block chain micro-payment protocol based on the block chain transmission encryption protocol between P2P network bandwidth contributors and bandwidth users, and merge it into traffic mining. In the mining pool side, the whole protocol is built on the main network, which has Micro Payment and mining functions. In addition, HOP also supports traffic mining of ERC20 in any currency. So far, HOP is the only protocol that combines the above functions and is officially available in commercial application. It can provide terminal nodes for secure access to decentralized networks. HOP features and comparison with IPFS HOP and IPFS have certain similarities. The following table is a comparison of the two projects in terms of technology and application characteristics: https://preview.redd.it/mbz5t50otdy51.png?width=1178&format=png&auto=webp&s=09761948afa3e1c13141734c51f5bb3ddc68ab4e Why HOP might be a phenomenal project in the future Compared with the disadvantages of IPFS which are not supporting for hot data storage, low storage efficiency, low disaster tolerance and the high threshold of providing storage capacity, The advantages of HOP are summarized as follows:
High operating efficiency.
The smart micro-payment system runs payments with unlimited TPS, and the efficiency is 90% higher than Ethereum.
High level of open source. Supports all ERC-20 token access.
Low threshold of participation.
Any participant who has a certain fundamental knowledge of computer science and network technology can set up mining pools and miners.
It can be combined with Starlink satellites, repeaters, sim/esim cards and mobile phones in actual application scenarios to form a next-generation distributed interconnected communication network globally. At present, most of the participants of HOP are top tier tech specialists, famous investors and politicians with global vision. We believe that projects like HOP, due to the open source and far-sighted technical foundation, which can not only achieve internal self-consistent circulation, but also integrate well with external ecology. Just as water conservancy is invisible, HOP has unlimited inclusiveness and scalability, and has a strong platform-level vitality! We are looking forward to the accumulation of HOP, bringing a revolution in technology and applications to the blockchain and the practical universe!
I'm kinda ok with MCO -> CRO Swap; a indepth personal view
EDIT: this post https://www.reddit.com/Crypto_com/comments/i2yhuz/open_letter_to_kris_from_one_of_cdcs_biggest/ from u/CryptoMines expresses my sentiments and concerns better than I could ever put into words myself. I'd say read his/her post instead. Very long post ahead, but TL;DR, I actually see this swap as a positive change, despite fearing for what it may do to my portofolio, and having mixed feelings about its consequences on CDC reputation.Before I start, for the sake of context and bias, here's my personal situation as a CDC user:
I'm just a average Joe, with a 500 MCO Jade card. I bough 50 MCO at 5,22€ in September 2019 and staked for Ruby, then bough 440 MCO at 2.47€ in March 2020 and upgraded to Jade. The total amount of MCO I own is currently 515, and everything above the 500 stake is cashback rewards.
I bought MCO exclusively for the card and bonus Earn interest benefits, and had no plans to unstake my MCO. Now with the swap, definetly won't unstake.
The MCO -> CRO conversion rates increased the fiat value of my MCO in about 1000€.
I own a decent amount of CRO, wich I bought at ~0,031€ in March 2020.
The country where I live is crypto friendly and completely crypto-tax free; I only have to pay income tax if I deposit a certain threshold of fiat in my bank.
Take all these factors into account as possible (if not major) influencers or bias on my opinions; both the emotional and economical ones. Call me a fool or a devil's advocate if you want, but keep your torches and pitchforks down. As we say here on Reddit: "Remember the human".----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Like all of you, I woke up to find this anouncement, wich came right the #[email protected] out of nowere, and gives you little to no options. Good or bad, this announcement arrived as basicly a "comply or die" choice. Emotionally, this came as both terrifying and disgusting; but rationally, I cannot blame CDC for it. Because wether we like it or not, CDC is a centralized company, and the MCO tokens were never a stock or legally binding contract; something wich pretty much every crypto company or ICO warns in their T&C and risk warnings. Not to mention the mostly unregulated status of the cryptocurrency and. I'll call this "dishonest" any day, but I cannot see it as a "scammy" since I can't see how they broke any rules or terms. A scammer would take your money/assets away, but CDC is offering you to swap it for another asset wich you can sell right away if you want. And at current price, it is still worth more or less as much fiat as MCO cost at the 5 $/€ wich was more or less the comunity standard used for calculating the card prices. And by that, I mean that the fiat value of 50/500/5000 MCO (as CRO) is actually not far from the 250/2500/25'000 $/€ that the comunity commonly used as standard when calculating the ROI and (under)valuation of MCO. So CDC is at least trying to give us the option to get (some) our money back, and not at a unfair rate. If you happened to buy MCO at a price higher than this, I can't see how that's CDC's fault, just as I don't see anyone blaming Bitcoin or Altcoins for getting them stuck at the top of the 2017 bubble burst. I read many posts in this reddit calling this a "backstab" and "betrayal" of early investors and for the people who "believed in MCO". Emotionally, I share your sentiment.But after thinking it for a while, I'd say this was actually very rewarding for early investors and long term MCO supporters. As CDC clearly sates in the swap rules; nobody is going to lose their card tier or MCO stake benefits (at least not yet), and your stake DOES NOT unstake automatically after 180 days. Actually, so far they never did unstake automatically, you had to manually unstake yourself. With this in mind, everyone who already got their cards, or at least staked MCO to reserve one, basicly got them 3-5 times cheaper than future users; and IMHO, now the $/€ price of cards feels more fair and sustainable compared to their benefits.So in a sense, everyone who supported and believed on the MCO for its utility (i.e. the card and app benefits) has been greatly rewarded with perks that they get to keep, but are now out of reach for a lot of people.Likewise, the people who believed and invested in CRO (for whatever reason), have also been rewarded, as their CRO tokens now have more utility. So either the price of CRO crashes down to around 0.05 $/€, or the people who bought MCO/CRO early or cheap are now massively benefited. But then again, so is everyone who bought or mined Bitcoin in its early days, or invested in Bitcoin at crucial points of its history... how is that unfair? Some people bought Ethereum at 1'400 $ on a mix of hopes/promises that it would continue to rise; it didn't. And even today with DeFi and ETH 2.0 ever closer, it is still far from that price. And I know what some of you are thinking: "The cards aren't avaiable in my country yet, that's why I didn't buy/stake."Well, they weren't avaiable in my country either when I staked 50 MCO. Heck, the cards weren't avaiable in anyones country when MCO started, but many people still bought it and staked it. That's exacly what "early adopter", "long supporter" and "believing in MCO" means. On the other hand, the people who invested on MCO as a speculative asset and decided to HODL and hoard MCO, hoping for its price to moon and then sell MCO at big profit, had their dreams mercilessly crushed by this swap... and good lord, I feel their pain.But this is also where I'll commit the sin of being judgemental, because IMHO, speculating on MCO never made any sense to me; MCO was a utility token, not a value token, so it should not (and could not) ever be worth more than the value of its utility. That's basicly how stablecoins and PAXG are able to stay stable; because nobody will pay more/less than the value of the asset/service they represent. Tough now that I'm looking at the new card stake tiers in CRO, I have to give credit to the MCO hodlers I just now criticised; maybe you were right all along. Unless the price of CRO crashes or corrects, I wich case, I un-rest my case. One thing I'll agree with everyone tough, is that I fell that CDC just suckerpunched it's comunity. Because even if we have no vote on its decisions (wich again, we aren't necessarily entitled to, since they are a privante and centralized business) they should/could have warned that this was in their plans well in advance; if anything to allow those who wouldn't like it to exit this train calmly. Also the CRO stake duration reset. The mandatory reset of your CRO stake for taking advantage of the early swap bonus feels like another gut-punch. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Now that we got emotional feelings out of the way, here's my sentiment about how this will affect the overall CDC ecossystem. One common criticism of the sustainability of MCO was that its supply cap could never allow a large number of cards to be issued, and how could CDC keep paying the cashbacks and rebates. On the oposite corner, one of the major criticisms of the sustainability of CRO, was it's ridiculously huge supply cap and inflation caused by the gradual un-freezing and release of more CRO into the system. But now that MCO and CRO became one, it might just have made both issues more sustainable. Now the huge supply cap of CRO makes more sense, as it allows a much larger number of future users to stake for cards (at higher costs, but still). And because most card cashback is small parcels, this large supply also ensures that CDC can keep paying said cashbacks for a long time; especially since it can be semi-renewable trough the trading fees we pay in CRO. Before this, the MCO you got as cashback had no use, other than selling it for fiat or speculate on its price. But CRO can be used, at the very least, to receive a discount on trading fees. And everytime you pay trading fees in CRO or spend CRO on a Syndicate event, some of that CRO goes back to CDC, wich they can use to keep paying the cahsback/rebates. And keep in mind, the technicalities of CRO can be changed, as well as the perks and utilities it can be used for. So even if this current model doesn't fix everything (wich it probably doesn't) it can still be changed to patch problems or expand its use. Another obvious potentially positive outcome of this, is that now CDC only has to focus on 1 token, so it makes it easier to manage and drive its value. People complained that CDC was neglecting MCO over promoting CRO, but now they can focus on both services (cards/exchange) at the same time. Sure, this might not bring much advantage to the common customer, but its probably a major resource saver and optimizer at corporate levels; wich in the long term ultimately benefits its customers. Much like Ethereum is undergoing major changes to ensure its scalability, the crypto companies themselves also have to change to acommodate the growing number of users, especially as the cryptomarket and DeFi are growing and becoming more competitive. Business strategies that were once successfull became obsolete, and exchanges that once held near-monopolies had to adjust to rising competitors. There is no reason why CDC shouldn't keep up with this, or at least try to. Point is, the financial markets, crypto or otherwise, are not a status quo haven. And when something is wrong, something has to be changed, even if it costs. The very rise of cryptocurrencies and blockchain, wich is why we are here in the first place, is a perfect example of this, as it experiments and provides alternatives to legacy/traditional products and technologies. Was this the best solution to its current problems? Is this what will protect us as customers from a potentially unsustainable business model? I have no idea. This change ripped me too from my previous more or less relaxed status quo (the safety of the value of the CRO I bough for cheap), along with CRO late investors wich now probably fear for the devaluation of their CRO. To say nothing of the blow this represents for my trust (and I believe everyone elses trust) on CDC and its public relations. It's not what CDC did, it's how they did it. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Wether you actually bothered to read all I wrote or just skip everything (can't blame you), I'm eager to hear your opinions and whatever criticisms on my opinions you may have. If you just want to vent at me, you are welcome too; now you can raise your pitchforks and torches.
Earn 51-$171 in crypto (compound, stellar, celo, and maker) by simply learning about them and answering questions through my coinbase link! Instant payout upon completion! Can sell for cash and transfer to bank immediately! Will pay an extra $5 for each link used and completed! Very quick
Make $51+ to Learn about crypto on Coinbase! Up to $150 using my Bonus! [ID Verify Needed] (If you want to learn a little about bitcoin and crypto, read the whole thing, if you just want the bonus, only read the next 15-20 sentences) First use this one for your signup: https://www.coinbase.com/join/schaib_sl Once you signed up and verified identity use the links below!
Altogether there are 6 different lessons, each takes like 5-10 mins with a quiz at the end. Only 3 of them i will get rewarded for though. You will also get an extra $10 for each completed for my referral + $51 from all 6 quizzes and also another $120 if you get 4 people to do the quizzes. They are really quick, especially if already have an account. Also you can look up the answers for each one on google so you dont need to sit through them, be even quicker. Please complete the 3 i sent the links with to the end so we get 10$ reward extra. As soon as you finish they send you the coins into coin base account. Once they are in your account you can sell them instantly for $$, and transfer to your bank account, OR you can keep them on your account. EOS, and COMP have been doing really well, so they might be worth keeping. This is just a really good promotion, probably one of the better i’ve see. Its easy AF, quick, and the reward is really good. If you don’t know anything about crypto, i highly suggest you learn. It’s still very early and its growing super quick. cryptocurrency has gained a ton of attention in the past couple years and is actually starting to become a real actual currencies (already is, but according to our governments) many different types of crypto is starting to become accepted in a bunch of stores, realtors are taking as payment for a house, and colleges are even accepting as tuition. I started researching bitcoin a short amount of time after Satoshi Nakamoto released it (2009) and bought my first few in 2013 at 15$!! From early 2013 the price was about $11 USD and at the end of 2017, $20,000. But they fell and recovered as the stock market does. But the 24-hour trading Volume today, in 2020 is is INSANE ($20,690,383,231) with an even crazier market cap of $209,783,036,693, which by the middle-end of next month should reach $210 billion, possibly sooner. Its just a really smart investment, buy a little over time. Some analysts are predicting that BTC could reach anywhere from $100k to $1,000,000 for BTC in the next few years. Im not sure exactly where i would name the price in 5 years, but know there is only a limited supply of BTC. They are mined (basically just means that the transactions and blocks on the ledger or blockchain are verified) by sophisticated pieces of hardware called ASIIC miners, or some even use GPU, and CPU in expensive computers. Although CPU mining can be very inefficient anymore as the mathematical calculations and problems the miners need to solve get more and more complicated over time. This, the limited supply, the increasing interest, usability, and need for blockchain technology all add the the idea of BTC reaching such incredibly high futures. Their is a total of 20,999,976 bitcoin and that is it. With a total of 18,517,418.75 in circulation. The last BTC is estimated to be 2140. Big difference from the 18.5M mined in 10 years, right? Thats because of the halving. Anyway, I’m sure you have heard some things about BTC, probably from the media, and if it was, it probably wasn’t good. You probably heard that people buy illegal dangerous stuff off of the “Darknet” and that its completely untraceable. Or that money can be laundered through BTC. But that is hardly partly true for BTC and other cryptocurrencies, and completely true for the USD. While the blockchain doesn’t include any personal information connected to wallets (unless you want it there, or you have the wallet through a service that makes you use personal information, which many services are doing), all transactions can still be tracked and seen by anyone who has an internet connection at https://www.blockchain.com. So if the identity of one of the wallet addresses is known, it would be easier to figure the other out. But for paper, money that cannot be said... completely untraceable, has been prone to money laundering since it’s inception, can be used to purchase various drugs—hookers, guns, dynamite, and even politicians... since its inception, without a trace. The reason not just bitcoin, but i think even more exciting, is just blockchain technology and a host of things that are coming with it. It can be used for tons of things, software and can be built directly into blockchains, they can hold and process data at enormous speeds, while being extremely, extremely secure. More secure in a lot ways than banks. There are tons of new cryptocurrency projects being started everyday. For the most part, all of these projects have some sort of token integrated, because its what powers, and processes the data. If people find the project interesting or a great idea you like you’ll be able to invest in it buy buying/selling, or holding the token/coin. When these projects gain enough traction by like-minded individuals, the coin gains a value. This value can then be exchanged for other crypto, or traded directly for Fiat currencies ($,€,₽,¥,£,₩). For some examples of how wonderful the community is, and reveal what the true nature of blockchain and crypto was founded on, ill list 3 of my favorite crypto projects of 2020 so far along with a little excerpt from the white paper or other:
AIDCOIN: “allows websites to embed a widget into their website and accept donations in any cryptocurrency. Any donated crypto is transferred into AID token, which is also a stable coin. At first, this might seem like not such a good thing but the more I looked into it, the more I realized accepting a stable coin might actually make more sense for a charity as it reduces their risk exposure to volatility.”
BRAVE BROWSER—Privacy Internet Browser: “As far as I’m concerned, keeping people safe and protecting their privacy and security is a noble endeavor. For far too long, giants like Google and Facebook have gotten away with unethical data practices with nothing more than a slap on the wrist. They have been able to spy on their users, abuse their data and use it for whatever purpose they deem fit. Brave Browser is looking to put an end to that through the most secure browser that exists on the market today.” Basically Brave takes on the responsibility of completely protecting privacy and from ads. As an added available option, brave allows you, to watch and look at sponsored ads while you browse. So basically just a stand-in for other browsers ads, but instead you make money WITH brave. You are awarded BAT (Basic Attention Token) for your service. BAT’s are currently at .21¢.
Power Ledger: Last but not least. Power Ledger is probably one of my favorite projects that is actually making a real use-case out of crypto and blockchain. They are aiming to disrupt the energy sector with a heightened focus on renewable energy. Their software allows for three core things: 1. Energy Trading (if you have excess energy from your solar panels, for example, you can trade that to your neighbor through Power Ledger). 2. Environmental commodities trading (to help for the reliable tracking of renewable energy credits). 3. Renewable asset ownership (This will allow people who cannot afford their own renewable energy set-up to invest in fractional ownership). I honestly think Power Ledger is doing God’s work and wish them all the best.
As those projects above outlined, the basic principles behind pretty much every currency and upcoming project i have ever seen is, Trust, Sharing profit with the users who help make it into what it becomes, actual transparency, no central authority (due to decentralization), and lastly i believe it gives opportunity to those who are out if opportunity’s way. This is because it reaches so far, like into oppressive governments and 3rd work countries. Anyways, i hope to have given you a little insight during this read. Crypto has so much potential to fill and has already done so much. Looking forward to seeing where else all of this goes.
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